The meeting started at the presidential palace at 11.45 local time (0945 GMT).
Erdogan is the sixth president to head a cabinet meeting after the country’s transition to a multi-party system in 1946.
The undersecretaries for Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Interior Affairs and Ministry of Transportation replaced their respective ministers at the meeting.
Ministers Bekir Bozdag, Efkan Ala and Lutfi Elvan resigned from their positions as of March 7 due to the general elections, which are to be held in June.
According to the Turkish law, these three ministries are always vacated during election season to ensure objectivity.
Following the meeting, deputy prime minister and government spokesman Bulent Arinc is expected to make a statement to reporters.
Before Erdogan, former presidents Cemal Gursel, Fahri Koruturk, Kenan Evren, Turgut Ozal and Suleyman Demirel all chaired cabinet meetings in the past.
Erdogan’s first cabinet meeting was held on Jan. 19, 2015.